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Different “Flavors” of OFDM. There are different “flavors” of OFDM according what we put in the Prefix:. Prefix. Prefix. Prefix. data. P. data. P. data. P. time. Three main choices: CP-OFDM with Cyclic Prefix (CP) ZP-OFDM with Zero Prefix (ZP)

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## Different “Flavors” of OFDM

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**There are different “flavors” of OFDM according what we**put in the Prefix: Prefix Prefix Prefix data P data P data P time • Three main choices: • CP-OFDM with Cyclic Prefix (CP) • ZP-OFDM with Zero Prefix (ZP) • TDS-OFDM (Time Domain Synchronous) with Pseudo-Random Prefix**CP-OFDM with Cyclic Prefix**data CP • The most used: IEEE802.11, 802.16, Digital Video Broadcasting in Europe and many others • Advantages: • Simple to implement • CP good for synchronization (since it repeats) • Disadvantages: • CP discarded (waste of transmitted power) • possible nulls at subcarriers in fading channels**Reason for Null Carrier in CP**Let’s follow one subcarrier: channel Steady state CP Transient • With CP, at the receiver we discard the transient and just look at steady state; • if the frequency response at the subcarriers frequency is zero (deep fading), then we completely loose that data of that subcarrier.**ZP-OFDM with Zero Prefix**data ZP • Used in some standards (“WiMedia UWB” Personal Area Network for multimedia, short range, file transfer) • Advantages: • in principle, there is never a null, if properly implemented • no power loss in ZP • suitable for Blind Equalization (see later) • Disadvantages: • “proper implementation” cannot use FFT and is very inefficient • keeps turning on and off: not good for components. Reference: B. Muquet, Z. Wang, G.B. Giannakis, M. deCourville, P. Duhamel,” Cyclic Prefix or Zero Padding for Wireless Multicarrier Transmission?”, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol 50, no 12, December 2002**Reason for Never a Null Carrier in ZP**Let’s follow one subcarrier corresponding to deep fading: Steady state channel ZP Transients • No Inter Block Interference (IBI) due to the ZP • With ZP, you do not discard anything; • if the frequency response at the subcarriers frequency is zero (deep fading), then we still have a transient response, no matter what (most likely it will have low energy, but never zero)**Time Domain Synchronous TDS-OFDM with Pseudo-random Prefix**(PP) data PP • In Chinese Digital TV standard (DTMB) • Advantages: • Excellent Synchronization • Excellent channel estimation • Disadvantages: • Slightly higher complexity (but worth it) • Applicable to long OFDM frames (such as Digital Broadcasting) Reference: M. Liu, M. Crussiere, J.F. EHeard, “A Novel Data Aided Channel Estimation wit Reduced Complexity for TDS OFDM Systems,” to appear.**OFDM-ZP and Channel Equalization**Channel Equalization in general (not OFDM yet). 1. Trained: Equalizer Channel estimator Training data time data Training data It is based on training data, known at the receiver. Receiver**2. Blind Equalization (general):**No training data (something like “no hands!”) Equalizer Channel estimator Receiver**How do we do Blind Equalization in general?**• We need to exploit features of the signal. Mainly two approaches: • Constant Modulus (for BPSK and QPSK signals): Equalizer estimator Channel If QPSK or BPSK: Determine which minimizes Problem: non quadratic minimization and likely it converges to local minima**Better Approach to general Blind Equalization:**• Subspace method: the received signal is in a subspace determined by the channel.; • One approach: Fractionally Spaced Equalizers: Sample at twice the symbol rate M-QAM Transmitter, Channel, Receiver DAC symbol rate Same as:**At the receiver, separate the two data streams (even and odd**samples): M-QAM Transmitter, Channel, Receiver DAC**See a discrete time model**Take the Polyphase decomposition of the channel and ignore the noise (for simplicity):**Apply Noble Identitites**= = = = = “zero” “zero”**DAC+Transmitter+Channel+Receiver+ADC**They are the same!!! **Apply z-Transforms:**Multiply both: Right Hand Sides are the same. Then : Back in time domain: This relates the channel parameters to the received data without knowledge of the transmitted message.**Example. Take a first order case:**Polyphase decomposition: Then: In vector form:**This means that the received signal ‘’lives” in a**subspace. The channel parameters “live” in the orthogonal subspace. Channel parameters Received signal noise Compute Channel parameters from received signal: Then the channel impulse response is proportional to the eigenvector corresponding to the smallest eigenvalue (zero if no noise) of**Mod and Demod with ZP OFDM**i-1 i i+1 i-1 i i+1 Take one OFDM Symbol (with index i): Transmittedsignal Channel Received data**Recall the transmitted data (drop the block index “i”**for convenience: Define the 2N points FFT, by zero padding Fact (easy to show): Due to the zero padding, convolution and circular convolution are the same: Demodulation:**ZP OFDM: one approach to Mod. and Demod.**P/S TX +ZP N-IFFT Choose even indices 2N-FFT S/P RX**Blind Equalization with ZP OFDM**See the zero padded data Define: Then: for all Recall that DFT of the product is the circular convolution of the DFT’s: where:**Notice that for k even, non zero.**Then: This relates even and odd frequency components:**Since (neglect the noise and put back block index “i”):**This implies that, for each data block ifor m=0,…,N-1 In matrix form, for the i-th received data block :**In matrix form, for the i-th received data block :**Where we define: a) the NxN diagonal matrices of even and odd 2N DFT components of the channel: b) The Nx1 vectors of even and odd 2N DFT components of each received block: c) The NxN matrix of this term defined earlier:**This expression relates the received data blocks with the**channel frequency response. Now see how to actually compute the channel frequency response. First collect a M received data blocks: “Pack” all the se vectors in a matrix:**Start with:**Multiply both sides on the right by : Multiply both sides on the right by : and you get: This relates the channel freq. response H with the received signal Y.**Summarize it so far:**1. Take M>N ofdm received frames : 2. For each frame, take the 2N point FFT by zero padding: 3. Separate even and odd subcarrier indices and “pack” them in two NxMmatrices:**Now we want to compute the channel from the expression**Define: Since are diagonal matrices, here is how this expression looks like:**Equate the m-throw on both sides (any one):**Just a scaling constant! Demodulation: For the i-th block. Take any arbitrary Given just one known symbol you determine .**Time Domain Synchronous TDS-OFDM with Pseudo-random Prefix**(PP) • The PP facilitates synchronization and channel estimation DFT Data Block PP Pre- amble Post- amble Pseudo Noise • The PP has its own Cyclic Prefix, both at the beginning (Pre-amble) and the end (Post-amble); • The Pseudo Noise (PN) changes for every frame.**Application in Chinese Digital Terrestrial Television**Broadcasting (DTTB). In this standard the PN is an m-sequence of length N=255 BPSK symbols. 3780 420 DFT Data Block PP 255 82 83 Pre- amble: repeat last 83 PN samples Post- amble: repeat first 82 PN samples In general (make the pre- and post- amble the same lengths for simplicity): C A B C A**Due to the repetitions, linear convolutions and circular**convolutions of the Guard Interval are the same: * C A B C A = Guard Interval Channel = A B C Fact:**Now see the guard interval at the receiver and correlate**with shifted PN: * = C A B C A DATA Define: = B C A B C A Fact:**Then:**But: Therefore: and:**Algorithm for Channel Estimation in TDS-OFDM:**DFT of DATA GI DFT of DATA GI Received data

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