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Harry S. Truman College

Harry S. Truman College. Prof. Mohammad Moizuddin Class CIS 250 Fall 2013. Systems Analysis and Design 10 th Edition. Chapter 10 – System Architecture. Chapter Objectives. Provide a checklist of issues to consider when selecting a system architecture

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Harry S. Truman College

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  1. Harry S. Truman College Prof. Mohammad Moizuddin Class CIS 250 Fall 2013

  2. Systems Analysis and Design 10th Edition Chapter 10 – System Architecture

  3. Chapter Objectives • Provide a checklist of issues to consider when selecting a system architecture • Trace the evolution of system architecture from mainframes to current designs • Explain client/server architecture, including tiers, cost-benefit issues, and performance • Compare in-house e-commerce development with packaged

  4. Chapter Objectives (Cont.) • Discuss the impact of cloud computing and Web 2.0 • Define network topology, including hierarchical, bus, ring, star, and mesh models • Describe wireless networking, including wireless standards, topologies, and trends • Describe the system design specification

  5. Architecture Checklist Corporate organization and culture Enterprise resource planning (ERP) Initial and total cost of ownership (TCO) Scalability Web integration Legacy system interface requirements Processing options Security issues Corporate portals FIGURE 10-1 Typical system architecture tasks

  6. Architecture Checklist (Cont.) • Corporate organization and culture • An information system must perform well in a company’s organization and culture • Enterprise resource planning (ERP) • Establish a company-wide strategy for using IT that includes a specific architecture, standards for data, processing, network, and user interface design FIGURE 10-2 Is ERP outdated, or will it still be around? Author Karen Goulart says that ERP’s future success depends on integrating new technology, such as mobility and cloud computing

  7. Architecture Checklist (Cont.) • Initial Cost and TCO • TCO includes tangible purchases, fees, and contracts called hard costs FIGURE 10-4 The Micromation site suggests that soft costs are very significant, but are more difficult to measure

  8. Architecture Checklist (Cont.) • Scalability • A system’s ability to expand, change, or downsize easily to meet the changing needs of a business enterprise • Web Integration • Will the application be part of an e-commerce strategy and what is the degree of integration with other Web-based components • Legacy Systems • A new system might have to interface with one or more legacy systems, which are older systems that use outdated technology, but still are functional

  9. Architecture Checklist (Cont.) • Processing Options • Will the system process data online or in batches? • Security Issues • Security threats and defenses are a major concern to a systems analyst • Corporate Portals • Provide access for customers, employees, suppliers, and the public • A well-designed portal can integrate with various other systems and provide a consistent look and feel

  10. System Architecture: Then and Now • Every business information system must carry out three main functions: • Manage applications that perform the processing logic • Handle data storage and access. • Provide an interface that allows users to interact with the system

  11. System Architecture: Then and Now (Cont.) • Mainframe Architecture • A server is a computer that supplies data, processing services, or other support to one or more computers, called clients • The earliest servers were mainframe computers, and a system design where the server performs all the processing sometimes is described as mainframe architecture FIGURE 10-6 In a centralized design, the remote user’s keystrokes are transmitted to the mainframe, which responds by sending screen output back to the user’s screen

  12. System Architecture: Then and Now (Cont.) • Impact of the Personal Computer • Stand-alone computing: Users can run their own word processing, spreadsheet, and database applications without assistance from the IT group • Companies then linked the stand-alone computers into networks that enabled the user clients to exchange data and perform local processing FIGURE 10-7 Internet-based retail operations such as use customer service centers to fulfill online sales

  13. System Architecture: Then and Now (Cont.) • Network Evolution • A local area network (LAN) allows sharing of data and hardware resources • A wide area network (WAN) spans long distances and can connect LANs that are continents apart FIGURE 10-8 A LAN allows sharing of data and hardware, such as printers and scanners FIGURE 10-9 A WAN can connect many LANs and link users who are continents apart

  14. Client/Server Designs • Client/server architecture generally refers to systems that divide processing between one or more networked clients and a central server • The client handles the entire user interface, including data entry, data query, and screen presentation logic • The server stores the data and provides data access and database management functions FIGURE 10-10 In a client/server design, data is stored and usually processed on the server

  15. Client/Server Designs (Cont.) FIGURE 10-11 Comparison of the characteristics of client/server and mainframe systems

  16. Client/Server Designs (Cont.) • The Client’s Role • Client/server relationship must specify how the processing will be divided between the client and the server • A fat client, also called a thick client, design locates all or most of the application processing logic at the client • A thin client design locates all or most of the processing logic at the server • Thin client designs provide better performance because program code resides on the server, near the data • A fat client handles more of the processing and must access and update the data more often

  17. Client/Server Designs (Cont.) FIGURE 10-12 Characteristics of fat and thin clients

  18. Client/Server Designs (Cont.) • Client/Server Tiers • In a two-tier design, the user interface resides on the client, all data resides on the server, and the application logic can run either on the server or on the client, or be divided between the client and the server • In a three-tier design, the user interface runs on the client and the data is stored on the server but a middle layer between the client and server processes the client requests and translates them into data access commands that can be understood and carried out by the server

  19. Client/Server Designs (Cont.) FIGURE 10-13 Characteristics of two-tier versus three-tier client/server design

  20. Client/Server Designs (Cont.) • Middleware • Middleware offers an interface to connect software and hardware • Middleware can integrate legacy systems and Web-based applications • Middleware is like glue that holds different applications together • Middleware represents the slash in the term client/server. • Middleware resembles the plumbing system in your home: it connects important objects in a way that requires little or attention

  21. Client/Server Designs (Cont.) FIGURE 10-14 The location of the data, the application logic, and the user interface depend on the type of architecture

  22. Client/Server Designs (Cont.) • Cost-Benefit Issues • To support business requirements, information systems need to be scalable, powerful, and flexible • For most companies, client/server systems offer the best combination of features to meet those needs • Performance Issues • IBM states that the performance characteristics of a client/server system are not the same as a centralized processing environment • Client/server response times increase gradually as more requests are made, but then rise dramatically when the system nears its capacity - called the knee of the curve, because it marks a sharp decline in the system’s speed and efficiency

  23. The Impact of the Internet • In an Internet-based architecture, in addition to data and application logic, the entire user interface is provided by the Web server in the form of HTML documents that are displayed by the client’s browser • Shifting the responsibility for the interface from the client to the server simplifies data transmission and results in lower hardware cost and complexity

  24. The Impact of the Internet (Cont.) • Cloud Computing • Cloud computing refers to the cloud symbol that often is used to represent the Internet • The cloud computing concept envisions a cloud of remote computers that provide a total online software and data environment that is hosted by third parties • Cloud computing requires significantly more bandwidth (the amount of data that can be transferred in a fixed time period) than traditional client/server networks FIGURE 10-16 The explosive growth of cloud computing has attracted many firms that fight hard for market share

  25. The Impact of the Internet (Cont.) • Web 2.0 • Not a reference to a more technically advanced version of the current Web • Envisions a second generation of the Web that will enable people to collaborate, interact, and share information more dynamically • Applications will deliver software as a continuous service with no limitations on the number of users that can connect or how users can consume, modify, and exchange data • Goal is to enhance creativity, interaction, and shared ideas

  26. E-Commerce Architecture • In-House Solutions • A unique Web site, with a look and feel consistent with the company’s other marketing efforts • Complete control over the organization of the site, the number of pages, and the size of the files • A scalable structure to handle increases in sales and product offerings in the future • More flexibility to modify and manage the site as the company changes • The opportunity to integrate the firm’s Web-based business systems with its other information systems, creating the potential for more savings and better customer service

  27. E-Commerce Architecture (Cont.) FIGURE 10-17 Guidelines for companies developing e-commerce strategies

  28. E-Commerce Architecture (Cont.) • Packaged Solutions • Many vendors, including Microsoft and Intershop, offer turnkey systems for companies that want to get an e-business up and running quickly • Service Providers • Many ASPs offer full-scale Internet business services for companies that decide to outsource those functions

  29. Processing Methods (Cont.) FIGURE 10-20 When a customer requests a balance, the ATM system verifies the account number, submits the query, retrieves the current balance, and displays the balance on the ATM screen

  30. Processing Methods (Cont.) • Batch Processing: Still With Us After All These Years • Batch processing means that data is managed in groups, or batches • An acceptable choice in the 1960s, and for most firms, it was the only choice • Tasks can be planned and run on a predetermined schedule, without user involvement • Batch programs that require major network resources can run at times when costs, and impact on other traffic, will be lowest • A batch method is well-suited to address security, audit, and privacy concerns, because it runs in a relatively controlled environment

  31. Processing Methods (Cont.) • Real-World Examples • Point of Sale (POS) Terminals FIGURE 10-22 Many retailers use a combination of online and batch processing. When a salesperson enters the sale on the POS terminal, the online system retrieves data from the item file, updates the quantity in stock, and produces a sales transaction record. At the end of the day, a batch processing program produces a daily sales report and updates the accounting system

  32. Network Models • The OSI Model • Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model describes how data moves from an application on one computer to an application on another networked computer • Provides physical design standards that assure seamless network connectivity, regardless of the specific hardware environment

  33. Network Models (Cont.) • Network Topology • Topology can refer to a physical or a logical view of the network • Physical topology describes the actual network cabling and connections • Logical topology describes the way the components interact • Hierarchical Network • Departmental servers control lower levels of processing and network devices • Bus Network • Asingle communication path connects the central server, departmental servers, workstations, and peripheral devices • Information is transmitted in either direction between networked devices, and all messages travel over the same central bus

  34. Network Models (Cont.) • Ring Network • Still exist but somewhat outdated • Resembles a circle where the data flows in only one direction from one device to the next • Star Network • By far the most popular LAN topology today • Has a central networking device called a switch, which manages the network and acts as a communications conduit for all network traffic • Mesh Network • Each node connects to every other node • Extremely reliable but very expensive to install and maintain

  35. Network Models (Cont.) FIGURE 10-24 A hierarchical network with a single server that controls the network

  36. Network Models (Cont.) FIGURE 10-25 A bus network with all devices connected to a single communication path FIGURE 10-26 A ring network with a set of computers that send and receive data flowing in one direction

  37. Network Models (Cont.) FIGURE 10-28 Mesh networks are used in situations where a high degree of redundancy is needed, such as military applications. The redundant design provides alternate data paths, but is expensive to install and maintain FIGURE 10-27 A typical star network with a switch, departmental server, and connected workstations

  38. Network Models (Cont.) FIGURE 10-29 Routers can be used to connect LANs and WANs to other networks, such as the Internet

  39. Network Models (Cont.) • Network Devices • Networks such as LANs or WANs can be interconnected using devices called routers • A router is a device that connects network segments, determines the most efficient data path, and guides the flow of data • Modeling Tools • Microsoft Visio, which is a multipurpose drawing tool, is used to represent the physical structure and network components • Visio offers a wide variety of drawing types, styles, and downloadable templates

  40. Wireless Networks • Wireless Network Standards • Most popular is IEEE 802.11 - a family of standards developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for wireless LANs • 802.11g offered increased bandwidth and was widely accepted by the IT industry • 802.11n uses multiple input/multiple output (MIMO) technology to boost performance • MIMO relies on multiple data paths, also called multipath design, to increase and width and range • Latest proposed standards, 802.11ac and 802.11ad, are currently being tested

  41. Wireless Networks(Cont.) FIGURE 10-31 IEEE Wi-Fi standards and characteristics

  42. Wireless Networks (Cont.) • Wireless Network Topologies • Two most common network topologies available for IEEE 802.11 WLANs are the Basic Service Set and the Extended Service Set • The Basic Service Set (BSS), also called the infrastructure mode has a central wireless device called an access point or wireless access point (WAP) to serve all wireless clients • The Extended Service Set (ESS) is made up of two or more Basic Service Set networks • Using an ESS topology, wireless access can be expanded over a larger area

  43. Wireless Networks(Cont.) FIGURE 10-22 Notice that the user in the left screen has moved out of the BSS coverage area, and cannot communicate. In the right screen, the user roams into another ESS coverage area, and the transition is seamless

  44. System Design Completion • System architecture marks the end of the systems design phase of the SDLC • Final activities in the systems design phase are: • Preparing a system design specification • Obtaining user approval • Delivering a presentation to management

  45. System Design Completion (Cont.) • System Design Specification • A document that presents the complete design for the new information system, along with detailed costs, staffing, and scheduling for completing the next SDLC phase — systems implementation • A typical system design specification typically includes the following sections

  46. System Design Completion (Cont.) • 1. Management Summary • Abrief overview of the project for company managers and executives • Outlines the development efforts to date, provides a current status report, summarizes project costs, reviews the benefits of the new system, presents the systems implementation schedule, and highlights any issues that management will need to address • 2. System Components • Contains the complete design for the new system, including the user interface, outputs, inputs, files, databases, and network specifications. • Includes source documents, report and screen layouts, DFDs, and all other relevant documentation. • Also includes the requirements for backup and recovery, start-up processing, and file retention and any interface information required between the package and the system being developed • 3. System Environment • Describes the constraints, or conditions, affecting the system, including any requirements that involve operations, hardware, systems software, or security

  47. System Design Completion (Cont.) 4. Implementation Requirements • Specifies start-up processing, initial data entry or acquisition, user training requirements, and software test plans • 5. Time and Cost Estimates • Provides detailed schedules, cost estimates, and staffing requirements for the systems development phase and revised projections for the remainder of the SDLC as well as total costs-to-date for the project and compare those costs with your prior estimates • 6. Additional Material • Other material can be included at the end of the system design specification such as documents from earlier phases if they would be helpful to readers

  48. System Design Completion (Cont.) User Approval • Users must review and approve the interface design, report and menu designs, data entry screens, source documents, and other areas of the system that affect them • Ensures that you do not have a major task of obtaining approvals at the end • Keeps the users involved with the system’s development • Gives you feedback about whether or not you are on target

  49. System Design Completion (Cont.) Presentations • Give you an opportunity to explain the system, answer questions, consider comments, and secure final approval • The first presentation is technically oriented - to the systems analysts, programmers, and technical support staff members who will be involved in future project phases or operational support for the system • Next presentation is to department managers and users from departments affected by the system • Final presentation is delivered to management

  50. Chapter Summary An information system combines hardware, software, data, procedures, and people into a system architecture Before selecting an architecture, the analyst must consider enterprise resource planning, initial cost and TCO, scalability, Web integration, legacy interface requirements, processing options, security issues, and corporate portals

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